Kamis, April 23, 2015

Verb Phrase, Tenses, and Subject - Verb Agreement

Verb Phrase
In simple words, a verb of more than one word is called a verb phrase. It is a phrase consisting of a verb, its auxiliaries (helping verbs), its complements, and other modifiers. Auxiliary verbs always come before the main verb.
A verb phrase is a syntactic unit that corresponds to the predicate. There are two types of auxiliary verbs. Inflected auxiliary verbs e.g. be, have, do and Modal auxiliary verbs e.g. will, should, must etc.
Below are some verb phrase examples with explanation:
She has taken the job. (Auxiliary has + main verb taken)
Mom is making the room.  (auxiliary is  +  main verb  make)
He did sing at the party.      (auxiliary do  +  main verb sing)
He has been coming late everyday.     (auxiliaries has been + main verb take)

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference. Tenses are usually manifested by the use of specific forms of verbs, particularly in their conjugation patterns.
Basic tenses found in many languages include the past, present and future. Some languages have only two distinct tenses, such as past and non-past, or future and non-future. There are also tenseless languages, like Chinese, which do not have tense at all. On the other hand, some languages make finer tense distinctions, such as remote vs. recent past, or near vs. remote future.
Tenses generally express time relative to the moment of speaking. In some contexts, however, their meaning may be relativised to a point in the past or future which is established in the discourse (the moment being spoken about). This is called relative (as opposed to absolute) tense. Some languages have different verb forms or constructions which manifest relative tense, such as pluperfect ("past-in-the-past") and "future-in-the-past ".

Subject – Verb Agreement
Subject-Verb agreement is a rule which states that the number present in a noun must agree with the number shown in the conjugated form of the verb that is being used, and that the person of the noun must agree with the person of the conjugated form of the verb that you are using.
Proper Subject-Verb agreement:
TO BE: I am - you are - he is - we are - you are - they are
TO WORK: I work - you work - he works - we work - you work - they work

Where the subject is a pronoun or complex or modified as part of an adjectival phrase, or modified by parenthetic expressions, or clarified in meaning by common knowledge or something that occurs later in the sentence, then subject-verb agreement can become a little more complicated. Some grammar rules say that the complex part of the subject closest to verb in the sentence should determine the verbal agreement. However, many examples can be found that make this sound funny. A better rule is to consider the entire complex subject phrase as one subject, and then think about what kind of thing it represents.Whatever the  represents can be considered singular or plural, and that is what the verb should agree with.
The president and the children (plural) are at the party.
Neither the president nor the children (plural) are at the party.
Either the president or the children (plural) are at the party.
Neither the children nor the president (plural) are at the party.
Somebody (singular) is at the party.
Nobody (singular) is at the party.
We (plural 1st person) are at the party.
I (singular 1st person) am at the party.
The Three Musketeers (singular-book) is a good book.
Ten dollars (singular) is enough to buy the book.
Ten dollars (plural) are in my pocket.
Economics (singular subject of study) is an interesting subject.
Bryans and Hastings (singular supermarket) is a great place to shop.
The idea of serving frankfurters (singular idea) is a good one.
My sister is (singular) with my friend, Roberta, at the party.
My sister and my friend are (both) at the party.

In many cases, the author decides whether the subject represents something singular or plural, depending upon which idea is desired to be expressed. For example, a group can act as a whole (singular) or as a group of individuals (plural), and despite many attempts at making rules for this, there is no simple rule that covers all cases:
All of my family is going camping.
Most of my family is at the party.
All of my family are fans.
Some of my family are fans.
Most of my family is at the party.
Most of my family are at the party.
Some of my family are in their homes.

The sounds the car makes, the ways they irritate (singular idea stated with 2 phrases)--it is all the same idea no matter how you say it. Another needed example is one in which the noun that is clearly singular until the entire sentence is read, and something near the end changes the meaning of the noun so that it clearly represents a plural thing.

Rabu, April 01, 2015

Subject, Verb, Compliment and Modifier

Definition Of :
·         Verb  is “ a word that expresses action or a state of being”
Five Sentence consist verb :
1.       They are not watching television in the living room
2.       I forget to tell her about your message
3.       He is talking to me
4.       She goes to school
5.       They have been waiting here since six o’clock

·         modifier is “ something that provides additional information or that limits the meaning of a word or phrase”
Five sentence with modifier :
1.       they have been waiting here  ( Modifier of place)
2.       I’m here her sing a song tomorrow  ( Modifier of time)
3.       Andy is going to your house now ( Modifier of time)
4.       I have not been late lately (Modifier of manner)
5.       She hadn’t gone when you came to my house  ( Modifier of place)

·         Sentence contain subject, verb, and compliment modifier
Ex :  Andy   is going   to your house   now
           S          V        Compliment     modifier time

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